How FICO Credit Scores Are Calculated
Because our world is so computer-driven, it's probably not that surprising that your ability to repay your mortgage loan boils down to a single number.
Credit reporting agencies use your payment history in order to create this score.
Each of the three credit reporting agencies has its own formula for building your credit score. The original FICO score was developed by Fair Isaac and Company.
Experian uses this model and calls its score FICO. Equifax's model, based on FICO, is called BEACON, while TransUnion, which also uses a slightly modified FICO, calls its score EMPIRICA. While the formulas vary, the differences aren't huge; they all use the following factors in building your credit score:
- Your Credit History - How long have you had credit?
- Late Payments - Do you have a history of late payments?
- Your Credit Card Balances - How many accounts do you hold, and how much do you owe on them?
- Credit Inquiries - How many times have lenders pulled your credit report for the purpose of lending you money?
Each of these is assigned a value and a weight. Each formula produces a single number which may vary slightly from one agency to another. FICO scores can be as low as 300 and as high as 800. Higher scores are better. Most home buyers in the current environment have a score above 620.
Not just for qualifying
Did you know? FICO scores are used for more than just determining whether or not you qualify for a mortgage. Higher scores indicate you are probably a better credit risk, and thus may qualify for a better mortgage rate.
Can I raise my FICO score?
Unfortunately, there isn't a lot you can do to immediately improve your credit score. So called "credit repair" companies advertise quick fixes, but the FICO score is formulated from your lifetime credit history, so it's not possible to raise it significantly in the short term. You must, of course, appeal for the credit agency to remove any incorrect data from your credit report, which is the only way to quickly improve your credit score.
Know your FICO score
Before you can improve your FICO score, you must know your score and make certain that the reports from each reporting agency are correct. Fair Isaac has created a web site (www.myFICO.com) that lets you do just that. It's inexpensive, fast, and easy to get your credit score along with reports from all three credit reporting agencies. Also available are helpful information and online tools that can help you analyze what actions might have the greatest impact on your FICO score.
You can get a free credit report once per year from all three agencies at AnnualCreditReport.com. You won't get a free credit score from AnnualCreditReport.com, but getting one is fast and inexpensive.
Now that you have all the facts, you'll be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to obtain the right mortgage for you.
Curious about your credit score? Give us a call at (541) 683-3300.