How FICO Credit Scores Are Calculated
Since we live in an computer-driven world, it's not surprising that your ability to repay your mortgage loan comes down to just one number.
This score is built by credit reporting agencies. They use the payment history from your various loans: mortgages, car/motorcycle/boat loans, credit cards, and others.
All three credit reporting agencies (Equifax, Experian and TransUnion) use a slightly different system to arrive at a credit score. Fair Isaac and Cooriginally developed this score. .
While Experian still calls its score "FICO", TransUnion calls its score "Beacon" and Equifax uses "Empirica." While each of the models considers a range of data available in your credit report, all of the agencies use the following to build your credit score:
- Credit History - Have you had credit for many years, or for just a short time?
- Payment History - Do you have a history of late payments?
- Your Credit Card Balances - How many credit card accounts do you have, and how much do you owe on them?
- Inquiries on Your Credit - How many times have you had your credit checked for a loan?
Each of these factors is assigned a value and a weight. Each formula produces a single number which varies slightly from one agency to another. FICO scores can be as low as 300 and as high as 800. Higher is better. Most people who want to get a mortgage loan these days score 620 or above.
Your credit score affects your monthly payment
FICO scores affect more than your ability to get a loan. They also affect your interest rate. Higher scores indicate you are probably a better credit risk, and thus may qualify for a better mortgage rate.
Improving your score
Unfortunately, there isn't a lot you can do to immediately improve your credit score. Because the credit score is entirely based on your lifelong credit history, it's very difficult to change it quickly. You must appeal for the credit agency to remove any incorrect reporting from your credit report; this is really the only "quick fix" for credit problems.
Getting your credit score
In order to improve your FICO score, you've got to have the reports that are used to build it, and of course, you need the score itself. Fair Isaac has created a web site (www.myFICO.com) that lets you do just that. It's inexpensive, fast, and easy to get your credit score along with credit reports from all three reporting agencies. Also available are helpful information and online tools that can help you analyze what actions might have the greatest impact on your FICO score.
You can get a federally-mandated free credit report every year from the three major agencies by visiting AnnualCreditReport.com. You won't get a free credit score from AnnualCreditReport.com, but getting one is fast and inexpensive.
Armed with this information, you will be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to get the right mortgage for you.
Want to know more about credit scores? Give us a call: (541) 683-3300.